Monday, May 31, 2010

a&p 1-2-3

I've decided to type up my lecture notes/key words from my anatomy and physiology class from memory to test myself :) we'll see how it works. I have a test on Tuesday.. YIKES! we've only had 8 hours of lecture...

CH 1

head-cephalic
face - facial
eye - orbital
ear - otic
mouth - oral
nose - nasal
chin - mental
neck - cervical
shoulders - acromial
armpit - axillary
arm - brachial
front of elbow - anticubital
forearm - antibrachial
wrist - carpal
hand - manual
fingers - digits
chest - thoracic
breastbone - sternum
breast - mammary
bellybutton - navel
abdomen -
hips - coxal
pelvis -
groin - inguinal
thigh - femoral
knee - patellar
shin - crural
foot - pedal
toes - digits

back of neck - occipital
back of shoulders - scapular
back - lumbar
butt - gluteus
back of knee - popliteal
calf - sural
heel - calcaneal

 9 regions of abdomen: vertical lines go through nipples. top horizontal line is at bottom of rib cage. bottom horizontal line is at top of pelvis
top right - right hypochondriac
top center - hypogastric
top left - left hypochondriac
middle right - right lumbar
middle center - umbilical
middle left - left lumbar
bottom right - right inguinal
bottom center - epigastric
bottom left - left inguinal

quadrants of the abdomen and organs in them
RUQ -
LUQ -
RLQ -
LLQ -

anatomical position:

defining anatomical areas
superior - nearest to the head
inferior - farthest from the head
anterior - to the front
posterior - to the back
lateral - farther from the center
medial - closest to the center
distal - farther from point of attachment
proximal - closer to point of attachment
dorsal - back
ventral - front
appendicular - appendages (arms and legs)
axial - trunk and head
superficial - nearer to the surface of skin
deep - farther from the surface of skin

body cavities:
dorsal: head and spinal
spinal
cranial - head and neck
ventral - thoracic and abdominopelvic
thoracic: heart and lungs
abdominopelvic: abdomen and pelvis
abdominal: stomach, large intestine, small intestine, kidney, liver, gallbladder,
pelvic: reproductive organs and urinary bladder

imaging techniques:
x-rays -
mri's - magnetic resonance imaging
CT scans -
ultrasound -

systems:
integumentary -
function:
protects body from environment
maintains body temperature
respiratory - breathing
function:
inhale oxygen
exhale carbon dioxide
maintains blood pH
cardiovascular - heart
function:
transports nutrients to the cells
takes away wastes from the cells
digestive -
breaks down foods
absorbs nutrients
reproductive -


urinary -
function:
maintenance of volume
maintenance of chemical composition
nervous -
function:
send impulses to and from the brain
center of control
skeletal -
internal support and protection
production of blood cells
body movement
muscular -
function:
body movement
maintains temperature
lymphatic/immune -
drainage of fluids
clears of pathogens
purifies tissue fluids
endocrine -
secretion of hormones

levels of organization:
chemical
molecular
cellular
tissue
organ
organ system
organism

basic processes of life:
movement
growth
reproduction
metabolism
responsiveness
differentiation

homeostasis
disorder
disease

body fluids:
Intracellular
extracellular
lymph
CSF, vitreous & aqueous, humor and synolvial


feedback loop
positive feedback
negative feedback

planes of symmetry
sagittal
transverse
oblique
frontal

serous membranes
pluera - around the lungs
pericardial - around the heart
peritonium - line abdominopelvic cavity
parietal - outside layer of membranes - attaches organ to cavity
visceral - inside layer of membranes

CH 2
atom
nucleus
proton
neutron
electron
ions
free radical
antioxidants
vitamins

elements
H
C
O
N
S
P
molecules

bonds:
covalent - strongest. share electrons.
hydrogen - weakest.
ionic - weak. opposites attract.

reactions and energy
kinetic energy
potential energy
metabolism
law of conservation of mass
law of conservation of energy
synthesis
decomposition
exchange
reversible

water
hydophyllic
hydrophobic
solvent
solute
solution
concentration

acids
bases
buffers
enzymes

inorganic
organic

molecules of life
carbs
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
 lipids
fatty acids
glycerides
saturated
unsaturated
phospholipids
cholesterol
proteins
structural material
energy source
hormones
receptors
enzymes
antibodies
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary

amino acids
DNA
adenenine
guanine
thymine
cytosine
RNA
uracil
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

ATP

CH 3

cell diversity
between 50-100 trillion cells in body
>200 types of cells
differentiated cells
intracellular
extracellular

cellular organization
plasma membrane. holds the cell together. made of a phospholipid bilayer. phosphate heads are polar. lipid tails are nonpolar. other things that can be in the plasma membrane are pores, cholesterol, carbohydrates and proteins.
cytoplasm. where all the organelles are kept.
cytosol
nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
filament
microfilament
flagella
lysosome
ribosomes
cytoskeleton
centrioles

protein synthesis
transcription
translation

2 comments:

Kim said...

Dear Cece,

This is super helpful for me as well! Thanks for doing the work for both of us <3

Good luck on your test!

Mercedes said...

I can't believe someone actually reads this <3